At this time’s column involves us from Karl E.H. Seigfried, goði of Thor’s Oak Kindred in Chicago. Along with his award-winning web site, The Norse Mythology Weblog, Karl has written for the BBC, Iceland Journal, Journal of the Oriental Institute, On Faith, Faith Stylebook, and lots of different retailers. He holds levels in literature, music, and faith, and he’s the primary Ásatrú practitioner to carry a graduate diploma from College of Chicago Divinity Faculty.
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Editor’s observe: This column references sexual violence.
The seeress of the Previous Norse prophecy poem Völuspá (“the seeress’s prophecy”) calls him “an evil-loving determine.” The goddess Freyja calls him a doer of “ugly, hateful deeds,” and her brother Freyr calls him a “smith of evil.” The 13th-century Icelandic antiquarian Snorri Sturluson calls him “evil of character.” Trendy-day educational Rudolf Simek calls him “probably the most unfavourable character among the many Germanic gods.”
For a thousand years, poets and students have seen Loki as a troubling determine who brings hurt to the group of which he is part. At the moment, there are lots of lovers of Norse mythology and practitioners of Pagan religions who view him as a constructive determine, and even one deserving of veneration and worship.
On one hand, he’s seen as a sympathetic fictional character, a intelligent and sophisticated anti-hero who punctures the pomposity of the good gods with wit and elegance. From the younger grownup fantasy novels of Joanne Harris to the rejiggering of Stan Lee and Jack Kirby’s comedian ebook villain into Tom Hiddleston’s heartthrob, the twenty-first century model of Loki is portrayed in a approach fairly totally different from his older mythic character. In all his trendy incarnations, he tends to steal any scene through which he seems.
Loki can also be seen by some as an inspiring deity who performs an necessary half within the private spirituality and communal ritual of recent Heathens and Pagans who situate him as a commemorated deity amongst Germanic or culturally eclectic pantheons. At occasions, his most devoted worship appears to shade right into a type of mono- or henotheism. I’ve met practitioners whose devotion to Loki and disdain for the opposite Norse gods appears fairly far faraway from a various polytheism. He may be notably essential to members of LGBTQ+ communities who discover deep which means in his historic and modern tales and elements.
There isn’t any cause to problem the significance that Loki has for therefore many individuals all over the world, whether or not it manifests in popular culture fandom or intense spiritual devotion. If the literary and cinematic character appeals to an individual, that’s their fact. If the mythological character speaks to somebody as a religious mannequin or seems of their private gnosis, that’s their fact. It isn’t anybody’s enterprise to assault these experiences.
My very own strategy to Loki, nevertheless, is sort of totally different. I consider in a theology that turns to the traditional myths for steerage, first trying to know them of their unique context after which bringing them into our personal cultural second.
I don’t consider that we should always reconstruct each facet of historic worldviews located in a time and place of normalized slavery, entrenched homophobia, and celebrated violence. I don’t consider that it’s even attainable to reconstruct the detailed inner worldviews of a plurality of peoples who left behind no second-level theological discourse. Immediately’s practitioners of Ásatrú and Heathenry belong to new spiritual actions that arguably started in a Reykjavík lodge on April 20, 1972. We apply trendy religions, not historic ones, and we should always interact with the world by which we truly stay.
That stated, I’m bothered by approaches to fantasy that brush apart any parts of historic sources that readers don’t like or discover problematic as “Christian influenced.” Teachers and practitioners alike are responsible of this rhetorical flip. Too many parts of as we speak’s model of Loki come from nineteenth-century misunderstandings (Loki as god of fireside) or postmodern rewritings (Loki because the “actual hero” of the Norse myths). Once more, I don’t deny the private which means that many discover in Loki. I merely can’t comply with them to a spot the place the sources of our information are learn in ways in which typically appear parallel to conspiracy theorist readings of at present’s information tales.
In his 1965 foreword to the second version of The Lord of the Rings, J.R.R. Tolkien wrote of his dislike for “allegory in all its manifestations.”
I a lot favor historical past, true or feigned, with its assorted applicability to the thought and expertise of readers. I feel that many confuse ‘applicability’ with ‘allegory’; however the one resides within the freedom of the reader, and the opposite within the purposed domination of the writer.
I hope we will comply with not be dominated by the surviving sources, to keep away from slavishly treating them as holy writ that have to be utilized to our lives as commandment and regulation. However I additionally hope we will agree that it’s potential to each interact with the texts as acquired and apply them to our trendy conditions: mutatis mutandis.
With this mindset in thoughts, I’ve been repeatedly struck by the similarities between the Loki myths and the Trump presidency. I’m not suggesting some simplistic “Loki is dangerous and Trump is dangerous” equation, however slightly positing a collection of parallels that’s prolonged with new examples on an virtually every day foundation – examples that I’ve been snarkily commenting on by way of my @NorseMythNews Twitter account. On this article, I’m trying to put out the applicability of the mythic determine to the political determine in additional element than is feasible in 280 characters.
There are at the least 4 main traits shared by Loki Laufeyjarson and Donald J. Trump. Do the opposite gods of Norse mythology have destructive qualities? Sure, they do certainly exhibit them at occasions. Loki, nevertheless, embodies them as no different deity does.
Objectifier of girls
Loki is sort of prepared to put ladies in hurt’s means to be able to assist himself. Within the first fantasy recounted in Snorri Sturluson’s Skáldskaparmál (“the language of poetry”), Loki wins his freedom from the enormous Thjazi by luring the goddess Idunn out of Asgard and into the woods, the place she is kidnapped by the enormous and made a prisoner in his residence. Loki makes no point out to the gods of his position within the abduction of the goddess and solely agrees to assist free her after his actions are found by the godly group and he’s “threatened with demise or torture.”
Trump has proven an analogous disregard for the security of girls who stand in the best way of his goals. After Dr. Christine Blasey Ford made detailed allegations of sexual assault towards Decide Brett Kavanaugh, and following his personal escalating statements questioning Ford’s integrity, the president made intensely inflammatory remarks about her at a marketing campaign rally attended by hundreds and broadcast extensively within the media. After brazenly ridiculing her testimony, he referred to as those that supported her “actually evil individuals.” Because of the “steady stream of dying threats” Ford and her household proceed to obtain, she has nonetheless not been capable of return to her house. Like Loki, Trump doesn’t appear bothered by what occurs to the ladies he locations in hurt’s approach; all that issues are his personal objectives.
Additionally in Skáldskaparmál, Snorri tells the story of Loki slicing off all of the hair of the goddess Sif. The assault could also be referenced within the poem Lokasenna, during which Loki brags of cuckolding Thor by sleeping together with his spouse and calls himself “malevolent.” The supposedly anti-Loki Snorri downgrades the motivation for the shaving to “love of mischief.” If the 2 sources connecting Loki and Sif are certainly associated, then the act of shearing could be seen as a trophy-taking designed to mark Loki’s sexual humiliation of Thor. Sif herself is merely an object in Loki’s assault on Thor’s masculinity.
In her sworn divorce deposition, Ivana Trump describes a 1990 assault that occurred after she had advisable the plastic surgeon that carried out a “scalp discount” process on her then-husband Donald Trump. Based on her sworn deposition, the actual property mogul was angered that the surgical try to scale back a bald spot was so painful. In fury, he ripped out a handful of Ivana’s hair earlier than raping her and – the subsequent morning – mocking her personal ache. As with Loki, there’s the thought of violating a lady’s bodily integrity as a method of gaining revenge for perceived wrongs from a person with whom she is related. Loki is admittedly aiming his fury at Thor when he assaults Sif, and Trump is considering of the physician when he violates his spouse.
The assaults on Idunn and Sif usually are not the one mythological situations of Loki attacking ladies. Within the poem Lokasenna (“Loki’s quarrel”), he publicly makes gross sexual insults towards all the goddesses who dare to talk out at a feast. Whether or not their phrases are conciliatory or confrontational, he responds by telling them to close up and accuses them of being sluts. (This is likely one of the key locations within the supply materials that makes me marvel how trendy ladies can discover Loki so engaging.)
Trump has been likewise fierce in his public responses to the twenty-one ladies who’ve accused him of sexual harassment or assault. Regardless of the notorious Entry Hollywood tape by which he brags about sexually assaulting a number of ladies, Trump has repeatedly denied even understanding those that have come ahead, claimed they’re “taking cash to make up tales,” accused them of being political operatives, insisted that they’re liars “trying to get some free publicity,” and threatened to sue them. It’s simply as troublesome for me to personally see Loki as a deity who ought to be commemorated by Pagan ladies as it’s to know Trump as a candidate who was seen by forty-one % of American ladies as the only option within the final presidential election. It’s additionally arduous to take the president significantly when he claims to have zero tolerance for any invasion of a lady’s private area.
Betrayer of group
Within the myths, Loki repeatedly privileges his private wishes and wishes over the well-being of his group. Along with the story of his willingness to assist the kidnapping of Idunn to be able to save himself, Skáldskaparmál tells of Loki delivering the unarmed Thor to the enormous Geirröd in trade for his personal freedom. Given Thor’s said position in myths because the defender of deities and people, Loki is prepared to sacrifice the security of complete worlds for his personal private profit.
Time and again, Trump has proven that he privileges his personal wishes over the security of the nation he leads. Whether or not brazenly analyzing and discussing paperwork on North Korean missile exams in entrance of paying members of his golf resort, renting area in Trump Tower to the Chinese language authorities for hundreds of thousands of dollars, or charging the entourages of Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman a lot for a five-day keep at considered one of his motels that the revenue boosted its quarterly income by 13 %, the president has made clear that his private enrichment trumps the safety of the USA.
Loki lets imagined insults to his ego drive his position within the killing of each a praised servant and a praised god. By driving the homicide of Baldr, he causes the gods “nice deprivation and loss.” Would the presence of Baldr – a pacesetter of warriors in each the Poetic Edda and the Historical past of the Danes of Saxo Grammaticus – have swayed the result of the ultimate battle and given victory to the gods at Ragnarök? Whether or not or not the reply is finally knowable, Loki makes doubly positive of Baldr’s absence in the course of the battle by guaranteeing that the god can’t return from Hel earlier than the mass destruction of the ultimate battle is full. Loki’s dedication to avenging supposed insults is aware of no temporal limits.
In his 2007 e-book (co-written with Invoice Zanker) Assume Massive and Kick Ass in Enterprise and Life, Trump provides the next recommendation: “All the time get even. If you find yourself in enterprise it’s worthwhile to get even with individuals who screw you. It’s essential to screw them again fifteen occasions more durable.”
Throughout his presidency, there are fixed reminders of Trump’s deep dedication to revenge for perceived sleights. Along with eager to order the Justice Division to prosecute his political adversaries, Trump has repeatedly used the presidential pulpit to assault media retailers that he feels don’t present correct deference and enterprise leaders whose successes he feels eclipse his personal. He has proven himself absolutely prepared to trash relationships with America’s long-term allies around the globe when he’s both jealous of their leaders’ reputation or feels affronted by their independence. Like Loki, he locations a higher significance on his personal simply bruised ego than on the priorities and wishes of his society.
Don’t Loki’s actions redound to the good thing about the group, although? All through the myths, Loki solely performs actions useful for others after his dangerous acts are found and he’s threatened with grave bodily hurt. There’s a sample to his myths: Loki does one thing meant to profit himself; the act causes hurt to the broader group; he’s pressured to make it proper beneath ache of dying; his externally mandated act of restitution leads to some profit – the gaining of treasures, the dying of highly effective giants, and so forth.
Ought to we rejoice that his willingness to save lots of his personal pores and skin by serving to his captor abduct a goddess ultimately leads to the elimination of the enormous when the profit solely arises after the gods uncover his act and pressure him to make amends? Aren’t the gods those we should always credit score for the constructive consequence?
Don’t Trump’s actions additionally typically assist the group? He kindly agreed that household separation on the Mexican border was inhumane and took steps in the direction of ending the coverage, however solely after his personal help for the coverage appeared destined to trigger the lack of unbiased votes in the course of the midterm election. Even then, he denied his personal duty for the separations and put the phrase coronary heart in citation marks when claiming to care concerning the youngsters.
Home Minority Whip Steny Hoyer’s response to the state of affairs may be utilized to myths of Loki: “I don’t applaud the president. He created a disaster. He stated he solved the disaster. He has not.”
Opposer of regulation
Though there are hints within the surviving myths of rivalry and enmity between Loki and Heimdall, the poems and tales that we’ve present Thor because the god in strongest opposition to Loki. It’s Thor who is known as on to seize Loki when he seeks to flee righteous punishment, to drive him from the corridor when he assaults the goddesses current, and to ship him into bondage for his position within the homicide of Baldr.
It may be argued that Thor’s hammer is a logo of group – a logo of belonging to a group and of defending it from hurt. In The Symbolism of Evil, the French thinker and theologian Paul Ricoeur writes that myths are “a species of symbols,” that they’re “symbols developed within the type of narrations.” If Thor’s hammer is certainly a logo of group, and the hammer is repeatedly raised towards Loki, what does Loki symbolize?
I might argue that he represents all that’s dangerous to the group itself, from the putting of self over others to the objectification of girls. The opposition arrange within the myths between Loki and Thor exhibits the son of Laufey as a determine who seeks to flee punishment for breaking the norms of the society, who certainly seeks to mutilate the very instrument of the enforcement of the regulation, as he interferes with the forging of Mjölnir and causes it to be made with a defect within the deal with – the very place the place the hand of the enforcer grips the instrument of justice.
Can we truthfully say that the present president is against the rule of regulation in the USA? Sadly, his disrespect for and assaults on American establishments have been almost steady. On his very first day as commander-in-chief, Trump stood in entrance of the memorial wall for fallen brokers at CIA headquarters and used the chance to assault his critics and boast of his accomplishments, mere days after publicly evaluating the U.S. intelligence group to Nazi Germany. Simply this week, he used his Thanksgiving name with U.S. service members serving worldwide to assault federal judges who’ve disagreed with him and to discredit CIA conclusions concerning the homicide of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
Trump’s private and non-private rage at members of the Justice Division and intelligence communities has been well-documented, and the president has not been shy about viciously attacking the “stench” and “actual dangerous ones” on the FBI. This week, he repeatedly lectured George W. Bush appointee Chief Justice John Roberts in a collection of tweets attacking the concept america Courtroom of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is an “unbiased judiciary.”
The president’s biggest foil within the authorized system has been Robert Mueller, presently serving as particular counsel main the investigation of “any hyperlinks and/or coordination between the Russian authorities and people related to the marketing campaign of President Donald Trump” and “any issues that arose or might come up instantly from the investigation.” Trump has persistently insisted that there was “no collusion” and that Mueller’s investigation is a “witch hunt.” If Mueller is enjoying the a part of Thor on this story, serving because the devoted challenger of the one who flouts the rule of regulation, then Trump is appearing out Loki’s half in mucking about with the deal with of the hammer as he endlessly obstructs the investigation, obfuscates his relationship with Russia, and promotes those that publicly assault Mueller’s credibility – akin to Appearing Lawyer Basic Matthew Whitaker, who has echoed Trump’s portrayal of the investigation as a “witch hunt” and “political fishing expedition.”
Loki’s disrespect for the regulation extends past merely breaking codes of social conduct. Does he function by any ethical code in any respect, or his he purely amoral? As mentioned above, the myths present him working solely out of self-interest and solely righting his wrongs or appearing for the great of the group when he’s bodily pressured to take action.
This week, dialogue of the president’s core relationship to morality was foregrounded within the wake of the weird “Assertion from President Donald J. Trump on Standing with Saudi Arabia.” Launched by the White Home in response to stories that the CIA has concluded that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman immediately ordered the killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, Trump’s assertion begins by asserting the good evil of Iran and the dedication to “humanitarian help” of Saudi Arabia, then discusses the good monetary wealth-generating advantages of promoting weapons to the Saudis, repeats Saudi authorities slander of Khashoggi as an “enemy of the state,” undermines the conclusions of U.S. intelligence businesses, and pledges to help Saudi Arabia as a companion towards terrorism and supplier of oil. Labeling Khashoggi as an “enemy of the state” echoes Trump himself calling CNN reporter Jim Acosta an “enemy of the individuals” earlier this month.
After the assertion’s publication, journalists, teachers, elected officers, and others commented on what Prof. Roland Paris of the College of Ottawa referred to as “a sickening caricature of amoral realism.” Even earlier than the assertion was issued, Khashoggi’s fiancée Hatice Sengiz wrote – in phrases paralleling the above dialogue of Loki – that the Trump administration is “devoid of ethical basis” and has approached the killing “by means of the cynical prism of self-interest.”
Bringer of chaos
I’m unsure precisely when and the place the idea of Loki as a useful bringer of chaos entered trendy Pagan and Heathen discourse. Did it come from a grafting of chaos magick ideas onto Norse lore? Is it an adaptation of Wiccan dualism to Germanic fantasy? Regardless of the origin and entry factors, the concept Loki brings needful chaos to the in any other case stifling order enforced by the Norse deities isn’t borne out by the surviving myths.
It’s troublesome to view Loki positively when he helps an enormous abduct the goddess who brings well being and life, when he calls any lady who speaks out in public a slut, when he makes an attempt to lure the unarmed protector of the worlds into an enormous ambush, when he does any of the issues detailed above. How do his particular actions within the precise mythology counteract damaging actions by the gods and goddesses in a means that’s useful for humanity? What I personally see as adverse conduct by the gods – misogyny, violence, betrayal – are precisely the core parts of Loki’s character. So what are the ordered behaviors that he’s imagined to convey into harmonized stability by injecting chaotic parts?
If we consider that the constructing of proper relationships with the gods and goddesses by way of the reciprocal gifting cycle is a vital a part of Heathen follow, why worship somebody whose conduct is antithetical to these relationships? If we consider in dwelling lives which might be engaged with the world we inhabit and with the beings that inhabit it with us, why rejoice somebody who’s an lively agent within the destruction of the world and its inhabitants?
Two years into the Trump presidency, People have seen what it means to have an agent of chaos on the throne. Whether or not banning Muslims from getting into america, tearing youngsters away from their households on the Mexican border, spreading baseless conspiracy theories about refugee migrants, selling white nationalist tropes with the complete drive of his workplace, offering pink meat for anti-Semites whereas vociferously declaring himself “the least anti-Semitic individual that you simply’ve ever seen in your whole life,” or brazenly attacking LGBTQ+ individuals within the army and the broader society, Trump has created chaos within the lives of numerous people.
I’ve a tough time believing that any of these whose lives have been upended by Trump’s actions and the outcomes of his rhetoric welcome his bringing of chaos into the order of their private lives. I’ve simply as onerous a time believing that the inhabitants of the tough northern world of a thousand and extra years in the past would have celebrated anybody who introduced chaos into the communities that they labored to construct within the face of inauspicious circumstances. The place is the proof suggesting that on a regular basis individuals now or then prayed for chaos to disturb the order of their lives?
Even past the bringing of chaos to disrupt quotidian existence, Loki is a pacesetter of the forces of destruction at Ragnarök. He breaks free from his bonds, steers the ship filled with doomsday troops, stands with “all Hel’s individuals,” and kills the god Heimdall earlier than being killed himself. Along with the deaths of the most important deities, all of humanity however one couple are killed as “heaven and earth and all of the world is burned.”
It’s arduous to see Loki’s position in all of this as laudable, however some have asserted that he’s generously destroying this world in order that a greater world can come up. This concept is bit too shut for consolation to the ideologies delineated in Jeffrey Kaplan’s Radical Faith in America: Millenarian Actions from the Far Proper to the Youngsters of Noah.
If the Heathen ritual of blót is certainly meant to – as its etymology suggests – strengthen the god who’s its recipient, then worshiping Loki is supposed to offer help to an agent of earthly destruction and human genocide. I simply can’t do it. Name me a sq., however I’m extra considering growing the peace and dealing for constructive change than in doing works, as Kaplan writes, “within the perception that the apocalypse is imminent and thus that some quick motion is incumbent on believers.”
My father’s household lived by way of and escaped from extermination camps. Rising up, I heard lots from him about European regimes on the left and proper who needed to create good societies “however simply needed to get rid of some dangerous parts first.” This kind of utopian considering doesn’t work out so nicely for many who are thought-about the dangerous parts. To paraphrase a favourite phrase of my father’s, every time I hear somebody suggesting we burn down the world we reside so as to create a greater one, I begin backing out of the door.
I’ve typically been informed that Loki is justified in destroying the world as a result of the gods sure his son the wolf, threw his son the serpent into the ocean, and made his half-dead daughter the ruler of Hel. Snorri explicitly states that these actions have been taken “when the gods traced prophecies stating that from these siblings nice mischief and catastrophe would come up from them,” when “all of them felt evil was to be anticipated from them.” This want to guard the worlds from hurt and to stave off the destruction of Ragnarök strains up with the surviving poems.
I perceive the fashionable sympathy for the monsters, however I do assume it goes towards the best way such creatures have been understood each in historic occasions and in newer rural societies. Extra importantly, it turns away from a Ricoeurian studying of myths as symbols interacting in narrative and as an alternative treats them as trendy fantasy tales that includes complicated monsters as sympathetic characters with wealthy internal lives. This could definitely be a legitimate option to take pleasure in historic texts, however it does privilege studying by way of a psychoanalytic lens over in search of theological understanding.
This strategy to studying the myths shares parts with Trumpian rhetoric. In his personal media presentation of himself – a story accepted with out query by his most ardent supporters – Trump is the hero of the story and he and his household are sympathetic victims of evil forces. He explicitly asserted his position as protagonist when he publicly thanked himself on Thanskgiving. In line with this self-made fable, he’s upsetting the New World Order of the shadow authorities and the globalists who’ve joined with the media in a quest to destroy the American individuals. He’ll burn down all of the establishments which have develop into irredeemably contaminated by their very own failings and “make America nice once more” – a extra good world will come up from the ashes of the previous one’s failures.
Like Loki, Trump is intimately tied to 3 of his youngsters whereas seeming to largely ignore two others. Paralleling the sympathy given to the wolf son, the serpent son, and the half-corpse daughter, Trump has denounced media criticism of his belligerent sons Donald, Jr. and Eric whereas insisting his daughter Ivanka be lauded for her nepotistic work within the White Home.
Will Trump likewise comply with Loki in enabling the destruction of the worlds? He has already carried out a lot to assault the norms of American society, U.S. authorities, and worldwide relations. It typically looks like he has already introduced us into an axe age and a sword age.
As Loki allies himself with threatening figures from the east in the course of the battle of Ragnarök, Trump has murky ties to repressive regimes in Russia and Saudi Arabia and has declared that he and North Korea’s supreme chief “fell in love.” But Trump’s relationships with world leaders are risky and changeable. Will he ultimately take the phrases or deeds of some overseas dignitary as a private affront so terrible that he’ll plunge us into nuclear warfare? When chaos is the order of the day, who can say?
So what? Who cares?
Why does any of this even matter? For these of us who consider that Ásatrú and Heathenry live religions, I consider it is very important deeply interact each with the myths which have survived from the “way back time” and with the world that we reside in in the present day. By partaking within the above train in Tolkienian applicability, we will achieve a extra profound understanding of each the myths and the present state of affairs. The vectors of consciousness transfer in each instructions.
By analyzing Trump within the mild of Loki, we will understand that he’s not some unusual aberration that has appeared out of skinny air with an unfettered potential to destroy our communities. Members of the cultures that produced the myths have been conversant in his sort centuries in the past – acquainted sufficient to have advised tales of an archetypal determine that exhibited most of the similar traits that we see within the president right now. Relatively than being shocked by each new transgression and vulgarity, we will settle for that he’s only one extra in an extended line of such males and can go the best way the remainder of them did. Whether or not or not Mueller wields the hammer of regulation and justice, there’ll ultimately be a Heimdall who will convey concerning the finish of Trump’s reign, even when the fashionable Heimdall manifests within the type of an citizens livid sufficient that it could overcome no matter shenanigans have been ginned as much as disenfranchise it.
By analyzing Loki within the mild of Trump, we will understand that there’s a option to perceive the mythic determine as neither a “Christian influenced” Devil inserted into the lore, nor a misunderstood anti-hero who must be elevated to a close to monotheistic pinnacle of devotion. As an alternative, he may be seen as a determine who represents the worst points in ourselves, who embodies all that’s dangerous to a group of constructive intent. Trump exhibits us the real-world outcomes of an objectifier of girls, a betrayer of group, an opposer of regulation, and a bringer of chaos being set unfastened to work his will upon the world. Is that this actually what we would like? I consider that the thought of Loki because the sure big who lastly breaks free to destroy the world is the basis factor of his character. I recommend that perhaps we should always help those that search to bind the beast quite than cheer on his rampage.
Lastly, I want to make the straightforward request that, following this text, lovers of Loki and partisans of the president chorus from making demise threats towards me. I do know that these are two figures who encourage passionate devotion, however I feel it’s potential to have variations of opinion with out threatening lives and livelihood. Thanks for rejecting fundamentalism.